By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam.[17][18]. Muhammad treated slaves as human beings and clearly held some in the highest esteem". [218] Another description of Muhammad was provided by Umm Ma'bad, a woman he met on his journey to Medina:[220][221]. How did the Prophet Muhammad Die? About 2 month before his attack on Khaibar Muhammad failed in an attempt to go to Mecca. And in one of the battles, he lost his front teeth. When God took him unto Him, there was scarcely twenty white hairs in his head and beard. [184][185] According to Sunni tafsir, the following Quranic verse was delivered during this event: "Today I have perfected your religion, and completed my favours for you and chosen Islam as a religion for you" (Quran 5:3). Muhammad is said to have had thirteen wives in total (although two have ambiguous accounts, Rayhana bint Zayd and Maria al-Qibtiyya, as wife or concubine[222][223]). Muhammad performed household chores such as preparing food, sewing clothes, and repairing shoes. [139][140] Around a year later, Muhammad expelled the Banu Nadir from Medina[141] forcing their emigration to Syria; he allowed them to take some possessions, as he was unable to subdue the Banu Nadir in their strongholds. Muhammad retracted the verses the next day at the behest of Gabriel, claiming that the verses were whispered by the devil himself. In this sermon, Muhammad advised his followers not to follow certain pre-Islamic customs. [134][135] The Muslims buried the dead and returned to Medina that evening. The Prophet said, "Now let me write something for you whereby you shall not go astray after me." The Prophet was buried the next day at the same place where he died. [16] Then Muhammad instituted brotherhood between the emigrants and the supporters and he chose Ali as his own brother. He had thick, curly hair. [28][29] However, Ibn Hisham admits in the preface to his biography of Muhammad that he omitted matters from Ibn Ishaq's biography that "would distress certain people". After the migration ceremony, when he passed in the houses of Bani ‘Addi, he remembered that his mother had lived in one of the houses there. The Meccans did not pursue the Muslims; instead, they marched back to Mecca declaring victory. [48], Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim,[49] was born in Mecca[50] about the year 570[8] and his birthday is believed to be in the month of Rabi' al-awwal. [107] The delegation from Medina pledged themselves and their fellow-citizens to accept Muhammad into their community and physically protect him as one of themselves. Muhammad prepared a force of about 3,000 men and adopted a form of defense unknown in Arabia at that time; the Muslims dug a trench wherever Medina lay open to cavalry attack. "[16], After the Reformation, Muhammad was often portrayed in a similar way. The increasing bitterness of this vituperation, which was similarly directed against the less numerous Christians of Medina, indicated that in time Muhammad would not hesitate to proceed to actual hostilities. [209][210] For example, according to Lewis, Islam "from the first denounced aristocratic privilege, rejected hierarchy, and adopted a formula of the career open to the talents".[which? Muhammad was middle-sized, did not have lank or crisp hair, was not fat, had a white circular face, wide black eyes, and long eye-lashes. [247] Maria al-Qibtiyya bore him a son named Ibrahim ibn Muhammad, but the child died when he was two years old. [258][259] Western historian of Islam Denis Gril believes the Quran does not overtly describe Muhammad performing miracles, and the supreme miracle of Muhammad is identified with the Quran itself. [187] With his head resting on Aisha's lap, he asked her to dispose of his last worldly goods (seven coins), then spoke his final words: .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, O Allah, to Ar-Rafiq Al-A'la (exalted friend, highest Friend or the uppermost, highest Friend in heaven). was a criminal. [16], The Meccans were eager to avenge their defeat. Nomadic groups constantly traveled seeking water and pasture for their flocks, while the sedentary settled and focused on trade and agriculture. God sent him (as a Messenger) when he was forty years old. Muhammad adjusted to the new direction, and his companions praying with him followed his lead, beginning the tradition of facing Mecca during prayer. At age 40 he is said to have begun receiving revelations from the angel Gabriel. [243][244][245], Khadijah is said to have had four daughters with Muhammad (Ruqayyah bint Muhammad, Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad, Zainab bint Muhammad, Fatimah Zahra) and two sons (Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad and Qasim ibn Muhammad, who both died in childhood). muhammad prophet, muhammad the prophet, muhammad islam, when was muhammad born, who was muhammad, where was muhammad born, how did muhammad die, the founder of islam, when did muhammad die, founder of [158][160] The main points of the treaty included: cessation of hostilities, the deferral of Muhammad's pilgrimage to the following year, and agreement to send back any Meccan who emigrated to Medina without permission from their protector. Alternatively some 20th century scholars have suggested different years, such as 568 or 569. [44], The second half of the sixth century was a period of political disorder in Arabia and communication routes were no longer secure. [271] While both Sunnis and Shias have created images of Muhammad in the past,[272] Islamic depictions of Muhammad are rare. 1955) The Life of Muhammad. Non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed. For instance, he said a white has no superiority over a black, nor a black any superiority over a white except by piety and good action. When they arrived Gabriel had informed Muhammad that the two verses were not part of the revelation, but had been inserted by Satan. During the twenty-five years of his union with Ḥadijah Muhammad had no other wife; but scarcely two months had elapsed after her death (619) when he married Sauda, the widow of Sakran, who, with her husband, had become an early convert to Islam and who was one of the emigrants to Abyssinia. This version adds: So a Jewess presented him at … While these continued, rumors spread that one of the Muslim negotiators, Uthman bin al-Affan, had been killed by the Quraysh. Muslim mystics, known as sufis, who were seeking for the inner meaning of the Quran and the inner nature of Muhammad, viewed the prophet of Islam not only as a prophet but also as a perfect human being. [281] Another Greek source for Muhammad is Theophanes the Confessor, a 9th-century writer. [28] Recent studies have led scholars to distinguish between traditions touching legal matters and purely historical events. At about the same time Muhammad contracted an engagement with 'A'ishah, the six-year-old daughter of Abu Bakr, and married her shortly after his arrival at Medina. [112], Following the emigration, the people of Mecca seized property of Muslim emigrants to Medina. [275] The Safavaids, who made Shi'i Islam the state religion, initiated a departure from the traditional Ilkhanid and Timurid artistic style by covering Muhammad's face with a veil to obscure his features and at the same time represent his luminous essence. Haykal, M.H. [298][299], Criticism of Muhammad has existed since the 7th century, when Muhammad was decried by his non-Muslim Arab contemporaries for preaching monotheism, and by the Jewish tribes of Arabia for his unwarranted appropriation of Biblical narratives and figures,[300] vituperation of the Jewish faith,[300] and proclaiming himself as "the last prophet" without performing any miracle nor showing any personal requirement demanded in the Hebrew Bible to distinguish a true prophet chosen by the God of Israel from a false claimant; for these reasons, they gave him the derogatory nickname ha-Meshuggah (Hebrew: מְשֻׁגָּע‬‎, "the Madman" or "the Possessed"). In company he is like a branch between two other branches, but he is the most flourishing of the three in appearance, and the loveliest in power. [131], A scout alerted Muhammad of the Meccan army's presence and numbers a day later. [90][91][n 6] Al-Waqidi was severely criticized by Islamic scholars such as Malik ibn Anas, al-Shafi'i, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Al-Nasa'i, al-Bukhari, Abu Dawood, Al-Nawawi and others as a liar and forger. [16] Sumayyah bint Khayyat, a slave of a prominent Meccan leader Abu Jahl, is famous as the first martyr of Islam; killed with a spear by her master when she refused to give up her faith. Mohammed was not a true prophet. [282], According to Hossein Nasr, the earliest European literature often refers to Muhammad unfavorably. Answer To this simple and short question, I am afraid I cannot respond with precise details. He was from afar the most beautiful of men and the most glorious, and close up he was the sweetest and the loveliest. When they justified themselves by referring to the Bible, Muhammad, who had taken nothing therefrom at first hand, accused them of intentionally concealing its true meaning or of entirely misunderstanding it, and taunted them with being "asses who carry books" (sura lxii. [165], The truce of Hudaybiyyah was enforced for two years. [122], The victory strengthened Muhammad's position in Medina and dispelled earlier doubts among his followers. But he insisted that slave owners treat their slaves well and stressed the virtue of freeing slaves. And he asked, what part of the body of the lamb he likes better. [249] According to a BBC summary, "the Prophet Muhammad did not try to abolish slavery, and bought, sold, captured, and owned slaves himself. [6] He was raised under the care of his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, and upon his death, by his uncle Abu Talib. Every Muslim proclaims in Shahadah: "I testify that there is no god but God, and I testify that Muhammad is a Messenger of God." ", Muslim tradition credits Muhammad with several miracles or supernatural events. "[182], In 632, at the end of the tenth year after migration to Medina, Muhammad completed his first true Islamic pilgrimage, setting precedent for the annual Great Pilgrimage, known as Hajj. [Quran 33:46], The Quran is the central religious text of Islam. [107][108] There was fighting in Yathrib: primarily the dispute involved its Arab and Jewish inhabitants, and was estimated to have lasted for around a hundred years before 620. Once I saw him in a red cloak and I had never seen anyone more handsome than him. Some narrations suggest that the earliest attempt on his life was actually when he was a child, with a group of Jewish people telling his wet nurse, Haleemah Al-Sa’diya, that they would have killed him were he not an orphan. Muhammad's denunciation of the Meccan traditional religion was especially offensive to his own tribe, the Quraysh, as they were the guardians of the Ka'aba. The Prophet was buried the next day at the same place where he died. [1] All were born to Muhammad's first wife Khadija bint Khuwaylid[2] except one son, who was born to Maria al-Qibtiyya. To maintain economic prosperity, the Meccans needed to restore their prestige, which had been reduced at Badr. Once the Prophet (SAW) passed away, there was disagreement as to where he was to be buried. These are honorific titles in Arabic, sharif meaning 'noble' and sayed or sayyid meaning 'lord' or 'sir'. [200] Although the practice is frowned upon by the Saudis, many pilgrims continue to practice a ziyarat—a ritual visit—to the tomb. "[285] Napoleon Bonaparte admired Muhammad and Islam,[286] and described him as a model lawmaker and a great man. [137] Muhammad's new policy was to prevent alliances against him. The Banu Qurayza eventually surrendered; according to Ibn Ishaq, all the men apart from a few converts to Islam were beheaded, while the women and children were enslaved. The attack had failed to achieve their aim of completely destroying the Muslims. When Saud bin Abdul-Aziz took Medina in 1805, Muhammad's tomb was stripped of its gold and jewel ornamentation. The outbreak of the latter was deferred by the fact that the hatred of the prophet was turned more forcibly in another direction, namely, against the people of Mecca, whose earlier refusal of Islam and whose attitude toward the community appeared to him at Medina as a personal insult which constituted a sufficient cause for war. John Henry Haaren, Addison B. Poland (1904), p. 83, The Cambridge Companion to Muhammad (2010), p. 35, Nemoy, "Barakat Ahmad's "Muhammad and the Jews", p. 325. [16] They also hoped, by the means of Muhammad and the new faith, to gain supremacy over Mecca; the Yathrib were jealous of its importance as the place of pilgrimage. They interpreted the biography through a Christian religious filter, one that viewed Muhammad as a person who seduced the Saracens into his submission under religious guise. [39] Shi'a tradition states Muhammad was not surprised or frightened at Gabriel's appearance; rather he welcomed the angel, as if he was expected. The Holy Prophet departed from this world on … A Meccan man named Mut'im ibn Adi (and the protection of the tribe of Banu Nawfal) made it possible for him to safely re-enter his native city. [16][193][194] During the reign of the Umayyad caliph al-Walid I, al-Masjid an-Nabawi (the Mosque of the Prophet) was expanded to include the site of Muhammad's tomb. (The Cambridge Companion to Muhammad, Jonathan E. Brockopp, p. 35), "Although, there could be some historical basis for the story, in its present form, it is certainly a later, exegetical fabrication. Monotheistic communities existed in Arabia, including Christians and Jews. "[208] Bernard Lewis says there are two important political traditions in Islam—Muhammad as a statesman in Medina, and Muhammad as a rebel in Mecca. His beard was thick, and his eyebrows were finely arched and joined together. Muhammad called upon the pilgrims to make a pledge not to flee (or to stick with Muhammad, whatever decision he made) if the situation descended into war with Mecca. Bilal, another Muslim slave, was tortured by Umayyah ibn Khalaf who placed a heavy rock on his chest to force his conversion. [153] Following the Battle of the Trench, Muhammad made two expeditions to the north, both ended without any fighting. 'Umar said, "The Prophet is overcome by illness; you have the Qur'an, the Book of Allah, which is sufficient for us." [32][33], Some Western academics cautiously view the hadith collections as accurate historical sources. [16], In later ages, Muhammad came to be seen as a schismatic: Brunetto Latini's 13th century Li livres dou tresor represents him as a former monk and cardinal,[16] and Dante's Divine Comedy (Inferno, Canto 28), written in the early 1300s, puts Muhammad and his son-in-law, Ali, in Hell "among the sowers of discord and the schismatics, being lacerated by devils again and again. [3] In Medina, located in present-day Saudi Arabia, Muhammad, one of the most influential religious and political leaders in history, dies in … If he commands, they obey implicitly, with eagerness and haste, without frown or complaint. 'Awf tribe, had composed verses taunting and insulting the Muslims. [154][229][231][232][233][234][235][236][237] She was therefore a virgin at marriage. The Shahadah is the basic creed or tenet of Islam. [267], In line with the hadith's prohibition against creating images of sentient living beings, which is particularly strictly observed with respect to God and Muhammad, Islamic religious art is focused on the word. [67][68] Islamic tradition holds that during one of his visits to that cave, in the year 610 the angel Gabriel appeared to him and commanded Muhammad to recite verses that would be included in the Quran. The "seal of prophecy" between Muhammad's shoulders is generally described as having been a type of raised mole the size of a pigeon's egg. For other people named Muhammad, see, For the Islamic view and perspective, see, أَبُو ٱلْقَاسِم مُحَمَّد ٱبْن عَبْد ٱللَّٰه ٱبْن عَبْد ٱلْمُطَّلِب ٱبْن هَاشِم, "Apart from this one-day lapse, which was excised from the text, the Quran is simply unrelenting, unaccommodating and outright despising of paganism." This placed Muhammad in danger; the withdrawal of clan protection implied that blood revenge for his killing would not be exacted. When silent, he was grave and dignified, and when he spoke, glory rose up and overcame him. "[60], In his teens, Muhammad accompanied his uncle on Syrian trading journeys to gain experience in commercial trade. [109] By 622, Muhammad emigrated to Medina, a large agricultural oasis. "[292], Recent writers such as William Montgomery Watt and Richard Bell dismiss the idea that Muhammad deliberately deceived his followers, arguing that Muhammad "was absolutely sincere and acted in complete good faith"[293] and Muhammad's readiness to endure hardship for his cause, with what seemed to be no rational basis for hope, shows his sincerity. Abu Bakr said: “I heard the Messenger of Allah say: ‘A dead Prophet is buried where he dies.’” So Abu Talhah lifted the bed on which he died, dug underneath and cut the ground to make the tomb. Muhammad[n 1] (Arabic: مُحَمَّد‎, pronounced [muħammad];[n 2] c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)[1] was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of Islam. She put a lot of ...to poison him. To escape ongoing persecution, he sent some of his followers to Abyssinia in 615, before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina (then known as Yathrib) later in 622. [104], The Hijra is the migration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE. She was the youngest one. (1933) The Life of Muhammad, translated by Isma'il Razi A. al-Faruqi. Questions accumulated about the reasons for the loss; Muhammad delivered Quranic verses 3:152 indicating that the defeat was twofold: partly a punishment for disobedience, partly a test for steadfastness. [301][302][303] During the Middle Ages various[304][305][306][307] Western and Byzantine Christian thinkers considered Muhammad to be a perverted,[304][306] deplorable man,[304][306] a false prophet,[304][305][306] and even the Antichrist,[304][305] as he was frequently seen in Christendom as a heretic[308][304][305][306] or possessed by demons. [34] Muslim scholars on the other hand typically place a greater emphasis on the hadith literature instead of the biographical literature, since hadiths maintain a verifiable chain of transmission (isnad); the lack of such a chain for the biographical literature makes it less verifiable in their eyes. (2003). [38][39], In pre-Islamic Arabia, gods or goddesses were viewed as protectors of individual tribes, their spirits being associated with sacred trees, stones, springs and wells. Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo, Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr). [9][16][64] His reputation attracted a proposal in 595 from Khadijah, a successful businesswoman. Tribal affiliation, whether based on kinship or alliances, was an important source of social cohesion. Although Muhammad did not engage with hostile forces at Tabuk, he received the submission of some local chiefs of the region. [138] One example is the assassination of Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf, a chieftain of the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir. An important point here is the long time difference between when the Prophet was poisoned (in the year 628), and when the Prophet died (in the year 632). Aisha reported, "I saw the Prophet being inspired Divinely on a very cold day and noticed the sweat dropping from his forehead (as the Inspiration was over)". [80] She was followed by Muhammad's ten-year-old cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib, close friend Abu Bakr, and adopted son Zaid. One fatwa writes: They decided to ask the next man who comes through the gate to make that decision; that man was the 35-year-old Muhammad. Descriptions like these were often reproduced in calligraphic panels (Turkish: hilye), which in the 17th century developed into an art form of their own in the Ottoman Empire.[220]. [84] [152], In the siege of Medina, the Meccans exerted the available strength to destroy the Muslim community. [169] In 630, Muhammad marched on Mecca with 10,000 Muslim converts. {Jesus, in God’s view, is the same as Adam, whom He had created from dust and said to him: ‘Be’, and he was there. [16] He presents him as a divinely inspired messenger whom God employed to confound the bickering Oriental Christians, to liberate the Orient from the despotic rule of the Romans and Persians, and to spread the knowledge of the unity of God from India to Spain. [158], Negotiations commenced with emissaries traveling to and from Mecca. 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